Late last week, singer Aretha Franklin succeeded
in convincing a judge in Colorado to stop the Telluride Film Festival from screening the documentary Amazing Grace
-- a concert film shot by Sydney Pollack that was actually filmed back in 1972, but was never shown. Franklin, of course, has no copyright in the film, but argued in her injunction request
that she had an agreement with Pollack not to use the film without her authorization. From the complaint
has never given permission for the use of this footage in any commercial context and has not
authorized the public release of the footage. The footage was taken with the express
understanding that it would not be used commercially without agreement and consent by Ms.
Franklin argued that part of the agreement between Warner Bros., which held the rights to the film, and Alan Elliott, who apparently purchased those rights from WB, was that Elliott would then obtain all the necessary "authorizations, consents and releases and pay all re-use fees and other compensation required by applicable collective bargaining or individual contracts or otherwise required by law." While parts of the complaint hint
at possible copyright claims, there really is none here, which is why the actual counts in the complaint do not mention copyright. Instead, they lean heavily on the (already troublesome) concept of publicity rights, as well as an anti-bootlegging law, which makes little sense, since the video is far from a bootleg.
As noted above, amazingly, the judge, John Kane, very quickly obliged and issued a short injunction
barring the showing of the film. There is basically no discussion of the issues at all. Rather, Judge Kane merely repeats verbatim the arguments made by Franklin and then orders the injunction, blocking the showing of the movie.
This is ridiculous. As Eriq Gardner at the Hollywood Reporter lays out in great detail, it is difficult to see how this is possible under the First Amendment
. When we're talking about speech -- even defamatory speech -- courts cannot issue injunctions, because that's prior restraint. There may be other
remedies, but it seems dangerous to argue that a publicity rights claim can lead to an entire film being blocked:
In Colorado, a plaintiff can't prevail on a publicity rights claim if a defendant's use of the plaintiff's name and likeness is privileged under the First Amendment. That much is clear by prior cases. The state's Supreme Court has held the analysis turns on two issues — whether the use is primarily commercial or noncommercial and whether such use reasonably relates to a publication concerning a matter that is newsworthy or of legitimate public concern. Feature films are almost always deemed noncommercial (as opposed to, say, an advertisement) while the public concern of Amazing Grace is a toss-up.
Even if Franklin wins this analysis and shows she has a likelihood of prevailing in her lawsuit, under the proper standard of law, she then needs to demonstrate "irreparable harm" to obtain an injunction. In past court cases, judges have refused to enjoin works even when defamation can be shown or even when someone's privacy rights are being violated. Publicity rights should theoretically evoke an even higher bar because what's being protected is commercial use of their identity.
Even worse, the judge relies on that agreement between Warner Bros. and Elliott concerning Elliott's requirement to get permission. But the actual lawsuit here is against neither WB nor Elliott... but against the Telluride Film Festival, which is not a party to that agreement
and thus should not be bound by it. So, even if one were to argue that Elliott had somehow waived his
First Amendment rights in signing that contract, that says nothing at all about Telluride's.
The expansive reading of the situation by the judge is really dangerous. As Gardner points out, such a reading of publicity rights laws could allow celebrities to block reporters from writing about them by claiming it is violation of their rights. Furthermore, considering the First Amendment questions at play here, it is even more troubling that Judge Kane doesn't even mention the First Amendment at all, nor does he explore the issue of prior restraint. Even more bizarre? Despite the lack of any copyright claim, the judge seems to focus on the lack of "fair use" for why he's shutting the film down:
A film that essentially recreates the entire concert experience is not fair use of this footage.
Again, the complaint doesn't even make a copyright claim, so it makes no sense to do a fair use analysis in the first place, and even if there was such a claim, a fair use analysis requires a lot more than just saying "hey, it's not fair use." You have to at least do a four factors analysis. But, again, that's neither here nor there since there was no copyright claim in the first place.
And, unfortunately, since the Telluride Film Festival is now over, it's not clear if the festival will appeal this ruling, which will keep it busy in court for no clear benefit. But, in the meantime, the ruling has scared off multiple other festivals that had planned to show the film. As Gardner points out, all of this prior restraint was because Judge Kane couldn't even be bothered to realize who the defendant was, nor did he appear to recognize a blatant case of prior restraint when it landed on his desk:
Judge Kane has done a disservice by issuing a hasty ruling on a last-minute injunction bid — telling THR that this one was an easy call because producer Alan Elliott needed Franklin's permission. Except that's not what he was being asked to adjudicate! Elliot wasn't the defendant after all. Instead, film festivals (and distributors and news organizations) now have to worry about prior restraints on use of a celebrity's likeness and name. And sorry, Aretha, but this is hardly good news for artists who often use the names and likenesses of other artists in their creative endeavors. If she had made a deal that gave her the copyright on the footage — meaning the ability to control reproduction and distribution — that would be one thing; Here, she's attempting the ride the same vehicle that Lindsay Lohan attempted to use to stop a Pitbull song.
I agree with Gardner that this is a horrible ruling, from a judge who seemed to be in a rush to agree with Franklin, without even realizing what the issues were or who the parties were in court (and if they were subject to the contract). The only "saving grace" is that this ruling is at the district court level, rather than appeals court where it would become the rule for the circuit -- but it's already leading to prior restraint and scaring off film festivals from showing the film. And, you can bet that this case will be cited by others looking to use publicity rights to censor content in violation of the First Amendment.