India's Supreme Court Rules Privacy Is A Fundamental Right; Big Ramifications For The Aadhaar Biometric System And Beyond
from the constitutional-core-of-human-dignity dept
In a move that will have major implications for the online world in India and beyond, nine Supreme Court judges have ruled unanimously that privacy is a fundamental right under the Indian Constitution. As part of a decision spanning 547 pages (pdf) they declared:
Privacy is the constitutional core of human dignity.
The case was brought as a result of a legal challenge to India’s huge biometric database, Aadhaar, whose rise Techdirt has been charting for some years. A post on the EFF Web site explains the legal background, and why the Supreme Court decision was necessary:
The right to privacy in India has developed through a series of decisions over the past 60 years. Over the years, inconsistency from two early judgments created a divergence of opinion on whether the right to privacy is a fundamental right. Last week’s judgment reconciles those different interpretations to unequivocally declare that it is. Moreover, constitutional provisions must be read and interpreted in a manner which would enhance their conformity with international human rights instruments ratified by India. The judgment also concludes that privacy is a necessary condition for the meaningful exercise of other guaranteed freedoms.
Now that a solid constitutional foundation for privacy in India has been affirmed, other judges will proceed with examining the legality of Aadhaar in the light of the many relevant points made in the ruling:
The Aadhaar hearings, which were cut short, are expected to resume under a smaller three- or five-judge bench later this month. Outside of the pending Aadhaar challenge, the ruling can also form the basis of new legal challenges to the architecture and implementation of Aadhaar. For example, with growing evidence that state governments are already using Aadhaar to build databases to profile citizens, the security of data and limitations on data convergence and profiling may be areas for future privacy-related challenges to Aadhaar.