Libertarianism, like any other political idea, is not a magic wand that is going to solve all problems by itself.
Whoever holds the levers of power can influence which laws get passed.
Yes, that is a generic problem with any form of government. I don't see what is different about libertarian government on that score.
Political scientists have lots of interesting ideas about how to solve that (few of which are ever tested because of so much fear of anything new).
If the laws aren't in place to cite for violations, where do you go?
Maybe we're talking past each other. You go to court. If you have a strong case, some ambitious attorney will be happy to represent you at his own risk for a share of the winnings.
That is the failure of Libertarianism; it refuses to address those facts. It also assumes we can all afford to launch lawsuits.
Most people have insurance, and insurers have both incentive and funds with which to pursue lawsuits.
More to the point, not everyone has to sue in order to make people be careful about endangering others. Libertarians support laws against violent crimes. The point of lawsuits is to compensate those damaged, but a side effect is to make it risky to endanger people - not everybody has to sue to cause that result. If people take care to avoid endangering others, indeed "the person might not be killed to begin with". That's my point.
Corporations already weigh the cost of fixing a problem vs. the cost of lawsuits.
Well, sure. We all do that - we can hardly do anything else. There is no such thing as 100% safe - life entails risk. We have to weigh the costs of risk mitigation against the benefits. Otherwise nobody would ever get out of bed in the morning - 'cause there's risk.
The core idea is that people should be free to live as they see fit, provided that they don't violate the equal rights of others, and that they compensate those they damage when that happens by accident. (When it happens deliberately, that's a crime.)
Yes, most of the solutions I cited are government solutions. Government does have a very important role to play. Among the most important roles is implementing a system of justice - without that we have black markets and street justice, not civilization.