There is right to trial by jury, however it is usually only automatically applied in serious cases.
If it's a minor case, typically where the maximum jailtime is less than 4 or 5 years, unless the defendant requests a jury trial then it won't go to a jury. Going to a jury adds significant extra cost to the defendant, as it's usually a 'bigger case' so there'll be more lawyers (solicitor + barrister, possibly even a QC), more time, and so on.
Let's use this analogy instead of the dogs and cats one.
Say the government decides it wants to expand housing, and creates a new neighbourhood of, say 1000 acres.
So, they decide to leave 200 acres as parkland/empty space within it, and sell the other 800 acres in 1/4 acre blocks, with the area mostly zoned for low-density housing (i.e. houses, townhouses, maybe some terrace/patio houses, and the odd small set of apartments, say 2 stories with a half-dozen flats/condo's), and some small shops etc.
So, 10 or 15 years later, they decide to remove the 200 acres of parks and empty spaces, and sell them in 2-10 acre lots for high-density, tenement-style housing. Highrise, low-cost apartment living. Ugly 10, 20 or more story buildings full of low-cost apartmentsand condo's. Increasing the population density 10-fold in a matter of 5-10 years.
Watch the land values in the area plummet. Overnight a 20%, if not 50%, devaluation in existing properties.
Do the government owe anything to the existing property owners who bought on the belief (but not contractual guarantee) that they'd be living in a low-density area with 1/5 of the space being open parklands?
What is weird about these broadband caps is that where I am, since the general availability of xDSL technologies to consumers in the early '00s, caps have been standard. Not only have caps been standard, it's been pretty common to count both incoming and outgoing data in those caps. While we sat back with envy when people from the US were surprised that we had caps.
Every couple of years the caps would change, usually increasing, for no increase -- sometimes a decrease -- in price.
The plan I've been on for the last ~6 years or so is $79/month (naked ADSL2 - no telephone service and I get about 16Mbps sync speeds). Initially it was only 150GB/m, combined data. Which in 2010 was fairly decent, I'd download SD TV, steam games etc, and only exceed the cap (throttled to 256Kb/s down) once every 3 or 4 months, which I could pay an extra $15 for another 15GB (or $5 for 3GB), if I needed for the last few days or week of the month.
Then about 3 years ago it went to 250GB/m, which co-incided nicely with my expanding viewing habits, and allowed me to download 720/1080p for choice programmes, and more TV programmes in general (and a lot of pr0n ;) ). Again, I'd exceed the cap every 3 months or so, and to avoid throttling it was now $15 for an an extra 25GB (or $5 for 5GB) if needed for the tail-end of the month.
About 12 months ago this was increased to 500GB/m. At which point I switched most of my viewing to 1080p, with the filler shows still being SD or maybe 720p (the shows I don't get excited about, but fill the time in between the good shows). I'm not sure what the avoiding-throttling excess was, as I never needed it with 500GB.
And, finally, about 6 months ago, only about 6 months after upping the cap to 500GB/m, it was again upped to -- uncapped. At which point all-downloading-hell broke loose, I download everything, even pilots, in 1080p. Even to the extent of downloading an SD or 720p HD TV episode to watch it now if that's available first and later downloading a 1080p version for savouring... Where I used to have Steam auto-updates turned off to save quota, so I'd only patch games I'm playing right now, now it's turned on for all installed games.
So here I am, gone from 150GB --> 250GB --> 500GB --> uncapped over 6 years, for no price increase, not even inflation or extra hidden costs, yet the US carriers seem to be reversing this trend.
We used to be envious of the broadband situation in the US, but not anymore, not in the last 3 years or so anyway (excluding Google Fibre - drool).
TLDR - the rest of the world is going from caps as standard to big caps or even totally uncapped while the US telcos are reversing direction and introducing unjustified, monopoloy-enabled profiteering caps and increasing prices at the same time.
I don't thine Alice invalidates all software patents, just most.
does no more than require a generic computer to perform generic computer functions
It invalidates software patents that run on generic computers.
What I don't think it invalidates are software patents for specific-purpose computing devices. E.g industrial control systems like the firmware embedded in CnC mills, ABS braking sytems in vehicles, flight control systems that allow fly-by-wire, engine management systems like EFI, medical equipment like pacemakers, printer firmware that controls the printing functions, and so on.
Please learn correct spellings of "smarter" and "lemonade", because you obviously are less intelligent than me. Probably because YOU are one without a proper education, therefore you are ignorant to this subject and your opinion is invalid.
By making this statement and holding the view you have expressed, you have shown yourself to be less than anyone else here.
A person's intelligence, education and knowledge are irrelevant as to whether an opinion is a valid opinion. An opinion is always valid. It may be wrong, it may be lacking, incorrect, limited, sorta right, close, far, good, bad, spot on, way off base. But it is still valid.
If you make the basis of whether even to consider an opinion on the educational and intelligence level of the person expressing the opinion, then you are an elitest, bigoted, limited, arrogant prick.
You are the one showing ignorance.
Most of the great discoveries in the 19th century, prior to the establishment and promulgation of the modern scientific method, were based on ignorance. Many of them were based on pure experimentation with no knowledge of why or what was happening, just that something was. Yet many great discoveries were made.
If an elderly but distinguished scientist says that something is possible, he is almost certainly right; but if he says that it is impossible, he is very probably wrong.”
―Arthur C. Clarke
Just because someone is lacking in education doesn't mean they can't, in fact often means they can, make fundamental contributions. It's usually those who are ignorant of the perceived wisdom of a field that can cut through that preceived wisdom and do what the educated establishment have flat-out stated is impossible.
Unfortunately, companies that service the medical industry also decided a few years ago that it would be a good idea to connect every-damn-thing to networks without first understanding the security ramifications of the decision.
I suspect that they actually did consider the ramifications. And, as any business (or anyone else in general for that matter) should, they probably did a cost benefit analysis. Cost of implementing proper security vs cost of not implementing proper security (e.g. law suits). And they probably came to the conclusion that it was more costly to implement proper security than not.
They, physically, walked up to the operator of a hotspot and asked (demanded?) them to turn it off.
Communications Act of 1934 states in part that you may not intentionally interfere with the wireless communication of any user on unlicensed frequencies.
Now whether physical interference -- destroying a transmitter/receiver or demanding it be turned off -- is considered "intentional interference", or whether only electronic interference (would an EMP be regarded as physical or electronic? ;) ) is a breach I do not know.