Impedes vision of the truth. Since the jury selection process eliminate DNA competence, all it takes it a little milk in the water to obscure the truth and sow that "doubt" in a few minds that the defence tries to expand.
They actually need a jury made up of competent DNA specialists...
Prosecutors want toggle switch evidence, the light of truth is either on or off. They do not want a dimmer switch with the prosecution and the defence trying to vary the validity of the evidence. In the case of LCN, the ratio of suspected perpetrator DNA can vary from zero to 100%, and the scattered innocent DNA will be the inverse. In the case of publicly accessed items. like door-knobs, you can have mixed DNA from many people. With PCR multiplication you can see how many different people were present as trace DNA fragments, since even a single cell would be capable of differentiation via PCR. One hopes a swab from the suspect can be used to determine if he was represented in the sample. Dr. Barbara Sampson may be very competent, as is Dr Stajic also very competent. We are not assessing their competence. Samson is trying to turn this into an on-off toggle, the perp DNA is present or not. Stajic is making a middle ground, and middle ground can be exploited to reduce the certainty of the evidence. Once the evidence is less certain in the eyes of the jury - perps walk.
Sadly, LCN is quite valid, as it can show or deny the perps cell(s) is(are) presence, even with 50 others in the mix. The question is:- Is the perp an innocent railroaded in?
If there are 300 cells of a stranger and one cell of the perp - did the stranger do it?
That said, there should be an internal dialog to validate the LCN method, because it can show that the perps DNA is there, and with other evidence to buttress it, might well be correct.
It is true that mitochondrial DNA is strongly conserved, but it does suffer mutation. If the mutation does not interfere with the function, it is inherited. If the mutation interferes with mitochondrial function, function is impaired, and even prevented, which can lead to cellular death or death of the organism if it occurred at a primal stage in replication(egg = one cell). https://www.google.ca/?gws_rd=ssl#safe=active&q=mutational+variance+in+mitochondria
If there is fear of contamination where the sample can hold cells of two people, it should be possible to screen the sample for variations of mitochondrial components, which should reveal the presence of 2 individuals. It is also possible the same is totally from an innocent person
The USA is under great pressure to earn non manufacturing income. One of the ways they do this is to strengthen and EXTEND the duration of IP protection laws. Look to the USA to lengthen copyrights and patents and trademarks so that they can keep sucking money from offshore wallets. We already know that big pharma might charge $10 per pill for Viagra in the USA, and charge $1 for that same pill in India, even as the pill has a cost of less than one cent. Pfizer tries to bamboozle us with innuendo saying only genuine Viagra by Pfizer works in their ads - other stuff will make your dick go black and fall off(just kidding). They try to block genuine Pfizer Viagra from being shipped to Canada/USA by their IP.
Pfizer and other pharmacos do this all the time.
And as for Disney, in 10,000 years, the Disney Corporation will be lobbying to extend their copyright on Micky Mouse to 10,200 years....
There are a number of ways Embassies, NSA typs organizations, political parties and organizations like Elsevier can use to create a uniquely coded pdf downloaded that links the subscriber's identity and the date of the download to an individual downloaded document. Bear in mind, all these documents will look superficially identical, same words, same images etc. A single line of text can probably encode 2-3 bits per 5 letter word by microkerning. This form of docu,ent control is used to trap leakers of data, as Elesvier desires. Afterwards the document can be scanned and the same software that created it can inspect the text spacings to identify who sent it. Steganography can also be used with photos.
To combat this, documents need to be OCR recognised and all words re-word processed to standard kerning. Images can also be stripped of steganographic data via projection and re-photographing with a slightly different resolution.
As to the precise ways used, it is hard to say, but if a number of different subscribers downloaded the same document at different locations as discrete subscribers that used the Elsevier API, which causes the system to create the uniquely coded document. With a few of these, they can be analyzed from the various methods used to create them, to see what means is used to encode them
This is an old an mature concept to control leaks in diplomatic circles. Every time they print a document every copy is unique, but to the untrained eye they all look the same, so if a leaker make a protocopy and hands it out a scan and some analysis of word and letter gaps will reveal the leaker. It only take a few changes to cover a group of- say 10 people. This was developed in the 80's when word processors came out on many desks. You could for years do this with early word processors and even by the letter press method by inserting sliver of spacers in between certain words/letters, but that was labor intensive. It is so common now, that leakers have learned to retype and paraphrase things they want to leak.
Universities need to obtain the rights to all papers and publish them. Each University and research body needs to establish an electronic publication format, plus a peer review process among themselves. These reviewers will be paid the same as what Elsevier pays. A aggregation service is needed. I think I will sugggest t to Google.
Think magazines, that is what Elsevier sells, and they do not buy the content. They now practice 'microkerning', which means that each copy they supply to a college in electronic format has the letter spacing and word spacing changed a little. It is a form of text based steganography. By this method they police the subscribers by threat of service withdrawal. Every researcher makes scans and sends to friends by e-mail for free. Whenever Elsevier finds one, that analyze it to see who made the scan = threat. That is the club they bear - a product of a forced monopoly that would take government copyrifght action to recify.
What governments should do is enforce zero copyright on publicly financed papers. Other paper financiers should do the same. It is in all their interests that papers all become open ASAP. It is only in Elseviers monopoly interest that the current systems persist.
There are a few drugs that are used as they come from plants. Salicylic acid, was turned into Acetyl Salicylic acid(aspirin) and Opium from poppies has evolved into many derivatives, and the fungi, in their battle against bacteria gave us penicillin and hundreds more from other fungi and their lab variations but most drugs in use now have come from scanning large numbers of compounds by mass screening method to find activity.
Gene sequencing looks like it will create the next wave of antibiotics, via synthesis and CRISPR methods that can use cells as factories for this and that.
The problem is the work needed to verify that a new drug is safe can cost $500 million. A number of drugs fail this screen and that is why the new drug pipeline is empty, almost.This can be paid by taxes or high drug prices while they are on patent. What would you choose? no testing or government pays?
Unrestricted growth of Marijuana would tend to lead to a genetically mongrelized crop with lower average THC and be prices at pennies per pound. There is a possibility that a sterile hybrid could be bred that would capture high THC as well as other attributes, so that breeders would have to buy new seed every year? I do not know enough about Marijuana genetics to know of and if sterile hybrid is at all possible. The seed hybridizers would have areas where they bred pure seed via controlled piollination.
Local growers could propagate non hybrid versions, but they would have to bag the female plants in some way to keep pollen out, and let air and CO2 in. Some plant baggers bag each flower cluster. They then spray some pollen from the desired strain on each set of florets to make the seeds for next year
True enough, what is needed is to revert the copyright to the authors, so Elsevier is stripped of those rights of ransom. In addition, declaring all prior academic publications as open sourced via changes to copyright laws should be done.
The Committee could strike a powerful blow against Elsevier et al, by adopting a policy that only scholarly articles submitted to Open Access Academic Publishers would be reviewed by the Committee. If they did this they would repeat and emphasize the creative act that made the Nobel Prize the most important body for advancing Science in history. Who could dare stand against them?