This is accurate. The questions are (1) what does authorship mean and (2) what does expression mean.
I would argue that authorship includes the process of designing and setting up a camera trap for the purpose of collecting capture photos. The photographer setting up such a trap is designing a system which dictates when the photo will be taken.
In contrast, the "monkey photo" was framed and taken by the monkey, not by the design of a camera trap.
However, in counter I could argue that there is no real authorship in the camera trap. After all, you are not deciding exactly when the photo is to be taken, or the exact framing of the picture. Instead, you are letting the whims and chances of fate decide.
Even so, I think this argument will fail and the other argument will win. There is authorship in the setup and design of a camera trap. There is not authorship in the monkey photo. (Well, not human authorship.)
I wish I had heard of this before! Now that I know about Zenefits, when I am looking to expand more I will definitely be looking them up. The lack of this kind of option has led me to slowly adopt the more complicated HR process such as hiring employees (just went this route this year), providing benefits (very limited right now to 401k, no health), and more.
With something like this, perhaps I will be able to more easily offer the more complicated benefit packages with more paperwork because this will reduce my time overhead in managing them.
As a truly small business, this kind of thing is a godsend.
Modern federal law supports the notion that an express carve-out is required in order to circumscribe the bundle of rights appurtenant to copyright
Modern federal copyright law carves out explicit exceptions to free speech in the Copyright Act of 1976. This statement shows a fundamental misunderstanding of the nature of copyright law by the judge, as well as the nature of intellectual property generally.
Then again, I've litigated enough to not be surprised.
I do a lot of consumer debt defense. Some of this includes medical debt lawsuits.
Interesting thing about medical debt: When did you agree to pay the specific amounts charged by the doctor?
Think of it this way—can you tell me another industry where you do not know, up front, what the rates or fees will be before you accept services or goods? Lawyers give you their hourly rates, for example. You get menus at restaurants. Plumbers and carpenters tell you hourly rates or flat fees up front.
And if you do not get these details up front, but they perform the services? Then you have a chance to negotiate the amount.
Typically, for medical services, you sign something where you agree to "pay what is not covered by my insurance company."
But this does not mean you agree to pay whatever the doctor wants you to pay. You still have room to negotiate what are the reasonable fees for this.
When you give thorough discovery requests targeting the question of whether the fees are reasonable, what the fees are for other patients and insurance providers, then you begin to get these medical debt collectors thinking twice about playing hardball.
Then again, it should never get to this point. It seems like doctors and their collection lawyers miss this fundamental aspect of contract law.
It's fun when you get a judge who understands this, as the collection lawyers do not. It stinks when you get judges who are lazy and just award judgments without listening to law or facts.
Even if a citation is copyrightable, which it probably is not (as it is predominantly fact, a method rather than an expression, and de minimis), use of the citation method for Zotero citation would be clear fair use and not a violation of copyright.
A good case on this was when Thomson West tried to claim copyright over the page numbers in cases. The court struck that down as copyrightable, and I think the logic would extend here as well.
I always astounds me the lack of common sense which comes into play in copyright matters.
Fair use is a limitation on the exclusive rights of copyright holders. It is not an exception to copyright. If you fairly use a copyrighted work, you are not committing infringement but being allowed to do so because of a fair use exception—fair use is non-infringement. See Section 107 of the Copyright Act of 1976.
Typically (but not always) "defenses" in the litigation process are excuses, justifications, or exceptions. In this sense, many argue fair use is not a classic "defense." Rather, it would be wrapped up inside other classic "defenses" such as "failure to state a claim upon which relief may be granted." (If the facts alleged by the plaintiff show fair use, then they have failed to state a claim for infringement as fair use is not infringement.)
This is all highly technical legal and legal process jargon. It does not take away Anonymous Coward's correct statement that, in practice, Fair Use is used in a defensive posture and typically must be proven by the Defendant.
This implies that fair use is a classic defense, as the burden of proof that a defense exists is typically on the person raising that defense. Fair use would seem to fit that bill.
Re: Re: Re: No more A/B testing without IRB approval!
Or, based on Grimmelmann's reasoning, if you do A/B Testing to folks in Maryland. Federal funds is not a requirement under the Maryland law Grimmelmann relies upon.
Then again, you really have to look into the Code of Federal Regulations and its definitions—which are explicitly referenced in the Maryland law—to see what is covered and what is not. It's too late in a long day on an already long week for me to go trouncing through the CFR unless I'm getting paid for it, though.