There are many specific jobs/tasks that fall under the umbrella of journalism.
Like many professions, a simple descriptor like journalism or journalist is a high-level description of the types of task one may accomplish.
Like saying someone works in medicine - they could be a medical doctor, a surgeon, a specialist (brain surgeon, oncologist), a nurse, a chemist (pharmicist), and so on.
Therefore journalist covers several sub-type areas, who each have their function. And of course, the same person can be performing different aspects, or different roles (wearing different hats) depending on the circumstances (or their job at that particular point in time).
To me, the basic different roles covered under journalism are: 1) reporting (e.g. news reporter); 2) Investigative reporting; 3) Analyst.
== Reporter == A reporter is exactly that. They are reporting what is happening, the facts. They report what the police said, or witnesses, or what they saw, he said-she said, and so on.
This is what I expect from the nightly 6pm news shows. A recounting of the facts. I would not expect any personal opinions or analysis of what's going on.
== Investigative Reporter == This is where we get into someone who 'chases' a particular in-depth story. They interview many people over a period of time, building up a major report. These are the types of situations where I'd expect fact checking, comparisons, calling people out on lies and so on. The ones getting in people's faces to find out the 'truth'.
== Analyst == Like the title says, analyse intelligence. Where in this case it's getting the reports from reporters, and building up a bigger picture, tasking investigative reporters to root around for them and get them information. A "bigger picture" sort of person.
Different types of businesses undertake the different types of journalism. The nightly news is mostly just 'reporting'. The current/breaking news in newspapers also.
The current affairs businesses (60 minutes, Foreign Correspondent, time magazine, wired, TechDirt, all these types of businesses) are of the investigative reporting/Analyst type businesses. Expose's, and so on.
All of the above ARE journalism, they are just different aspects of it.
And the same person on different days could be undertaking different aspects. Someone could be known as a hard-hitting investigative reporter, but gets hired by a local TV station freelance to quickly grab a news report of a local event for that night's nightly news.
Or they could be doing a completely different job. Say, as a moderator at a debate.
In general, a moderator at a debate is just a referee of the debate, to make sure the debaters stick to their time limits, to pass the questions around, and so on. It is not a moderators job, unless it has been explicitly listed as their job, to analyse, report on, the statements made by the debaters. They are not performing journalism, they are performing debate moderation, which is a different job.
Hiring a journalist to be a moderator at a debate is no different to hiring anyone else famous, a movie star, a sports star, local celebrity or what have you. The purpose is to make it look good by having someone famous in the mix. And for something like a debate, it just looks better if that famous person is a journalist or similar rather than a front-rower. It's a publicity stunt.
If you wanted journalism, analytical/investigative-type journalism, you wouldn't hold a debate. You'd hold a series of interviews.
Re: The Trolley Problem Would Never Happen on a Real Railroad.
You are getting caught up in the technicalities of the imlementation of a thought experiment, as opposed to what it is asking.
The thought experiment has set up an analogy to try to explain the experiment that is, admittedly, not fully applicable to the experiment.
Forgetting the analogy, the thought experiment is asking this:
If you had 2 exclusive choices, i.e. you could only do ONE of the two choices, which would you choose out of the 2 following options: 1) take an action that would save the life a number of people (usually 5 or more) but result in the death of 1 person, or 2) take NO action and allow the number of people (5+) to die, while saving the life of that 1 person?
Which choice would you make? 1) take the action, save 5, kill 1, or 2) take no action, let 5 die, let 1 live.
Variations on this assign a personal relationship to that single life that could live/die, thus making a personal link to the decision, reversing the no action vs action results (no action 5 live, 1 dies), adjusting the size of the group of people who will be saved/killed.
I think it's more likely that what will happen (or what we are aiming to happen here) is it won't be just me with a mesh network spread throughout my house using micro-SDRs (or SDRs built into every device, TV's, microwaves, fridges, light-bulbs or more likely the sockets, toasters, wall-clocks, doorbells and so on). My neighbours, and their neighbours and everyone else will have these mesh networks in their houses, offices, shops, and so on.
So when I stretch out on the couch and start surfing for pr0n^H^H^H^Heducational materials that I have a License from the copyright holders to access (ahem), there's only a small chance (or perhaps zero if that's how the mesh is configured) that my browsing session will go out my broadband connection. It's about 95% likely to jump from my mesh to my neighbours, and then to theirs, and use some random connection to the internet.
So any connection to the internet, on a per connection (I'm talking individual TCP/IP connections here, where a single page load in a browser could establish several score separate TCP connections) could either go out my link to the internet, or my next door neighbours, or a link half a city away, traversing a random local wireless mesh network before it finds a suitable (random within your configured QoS guidelines for latency, bandwidth and so on) link to the Internet backbone.
Therfore you won't be surfing with your ISP-provided IP address, each page you load will be using some random's v4 or a completely random v6 IP address, different every time you load a page (or whatever it is you are doing).
Of course, if the mesh is implemented badly, or even just poison meshes are involved, ala the Tor compromised exit nodes on so on, then it could still be possible to trace connections.
3. The Treaties shall cease to apply to the State in question from the date of entry into force of the withdrawal agreement or, failing that, two years after the notification referred to in paragraph 2, unless the European Council, in agreement with the Member State concerned, unanimously decides to extend this period.
First, I have to establish a VPN between my remote device (laptop/phone/computer) with my router, using both a certificate and a (16-character) password. Once I have established this VPN, upon access the DVR that the cameras are connected to, requires another authentication step, a username-password pair, whcih can only be accepted coming via the VPN tunnel.
Now while anything connected to the internet has a level of security vulnerability, this is pretty secure.
Perhaps the issues you have are to do with products that require connection to services that are outside your control?
I think ACs point is that SOMETHING (whether it be the OS or the firmware of the host computer itself) on the host system has to initiate the running of whatever is on the USB stick, whether that be loading the USB sticks firmware or executing code on a filesystem on the stick (Autoplay), SOMETHING on the host computer has to initiate that. The USB stick's firmware isn't magical and can't just make the host computer start loading the USB stick firmware. The host computer has to in some way allow that to happen.
So, the problem ISN'T the USB stick, it's the host system that allows a USB stick to run arbitrary code, whether in USB firmware or on a USB filesystem, without any sort of security checks.
We are told the autonomous car is safer because it has the ability of a machine to constantly scan and not be distracted - accept when the machine cannot see that which the car hits. Does not matter how well it scans if it cannot see the danger. This the first fundamental rule of autonomous vehicles?
This is true.
However, what relevance it has to a discussion about a collision by a non-autonomous vehicle I have no idea.
Tesla is not an autonomous vehicle. Tesla's Autopilot system is not an autonomous system. It is a suped-up cruise control.
Is there anything in the treaties ISDS provisions that establishes the role of precedents?
Even if Philip Morris has lost this arbitration, could another tobacco company launch the same case against Uruguay under the same treaty and have that tribunal ignore this precedent and give a different ruling?
Even if the treaty does specify precedents as binding, what effect does this have on ISDS provisions of OTHER treaties? For example, would this precedent be binding on TPP ISDS tribunals? If Uruguay signs up to TPP, could Philip Morris launch the same action again against Uruaguay under TPP and have that tribunal ignore the precedent set under this treaty and rule differently?
He knows content based restrictions on speech won't pass Constitutional muster.
Are you sure of that?
There are laws that, based on the plain reading of the constitution, are unconstitutional, but have been implemented and survived constitutional challenges. Usually by the Supreme Court declaring some special state interest, or introducing new legal principles that don't previously exist to make an exception of something.
You are free to practice any element of a religion as long as that element doesn't break a law.
You are freee to believe in a death cult, say a cult that as part of it requires sacrificing 1 human every week.
You can follow that religion, as long as you don't perform the illegal act of murdering someone. You can WANT it to happen, and complain about the fact that if you do do it you'll be arrested for murder. But as long as you don't actually do that (or any other) illegal act, you are free to believe in, worship and perform the rituals of that religion.
Playing Devil's advocate, what they are trying to say is that these services have become a social necessity and first amendment protections should apply. I kind of agree.
Faceboook is not a social necessity.
Facebook is basically a big social club, a REALLY big social club, but just a club nonetheless. It'd be like saying that the YMCA is a social necessity, therefore they have to allow you to post anything (that isn't illegal) on their bulletin boards.
The Internet is a social necessity. Many of the proocols that are used on it, SMTP, HTTP/S, TCP/IP, SIP, are necessities. For example, email (SMTP) is a necessity. Interfering with email, deleting email messages in transit passing through your mail relay would be actionable under this theory (it's a necessity so first amendment protections apply). However, providing a particular email SERVICE, e.g. gmail.com, outlook.com, other free email providers, is not a necessity.
If Facebook disappeared, then we'd just go back to Bulletin Boards or maillists. I mean, Facebook is basically just a glorified BB service/portal that's been hacked by spammers to spam you with unwanted advertising.
Utility poles are critical public infrastructure and as such perhaps should be owned by the state rather than the utility companies, as it is likely, as in many places, that the poles themselves are erected on public land or other land that is not actually owned by the utility pole carriers.
Other alternatives: start charging rent to the utility pole companies, with a rent-waiver or reduction if they allow the access as per the "one touch make ready" requirements.
Zero rating also is seeing support from companies that historically supported net neutrality (Google, Netflix) because these companies are benefiting from the additional traffic and ad eyeballs these programs send their direction.
The other benefit these companies receive is blocking competition. Buy paying a, probably small, or at least by these companies standards relatively small, amount of money to the ISP, they can block their start-up and other small competitors from competing with them because the small competitors can't afford to be zero-rated. And best of all, it's not GOOGLE's or NETFLIX's fault that start-ups can't compete, can't afford to be zero-rated, oh no, they can point the finger at the ISPs. it's the ISPs fault for having zero-rating.
It's ridiculous to ban people from sharing their legally purchased newspaper with other people. What's next?
Well, I guess you can substitute anything else that currently has some sort of control on it's poseession and/or use:
It's ridiculous to ban people from sharing their legally purchased firearms with other people.
It's ridiculous to ban people from sharing their legally purchased explosives with other people.
It's ridiculous to ban people from sharing their legally purchased drugs with other people.
It's ridiculous to ban people from sharing their legally purchased smallpox virus with other people.
It's ridiculous to ban people from sharing their legally purchased plutonium with other people.
So banning sharing newspapers isn't the thin end of the wedge, the precedent for banning other things later. Governments have been banning (or restricting via requiring licenses/permits) the sharing of things for, well, forever.