Humans may have made themselves masters of this planet, but there are still places on Earth that have been relatively untouched by people, where many new species of life are waiting to be discovered. Most of these lifeforms are very tiny -- insects, bacteria, and other microorganisms -- and they tend to live in extreme conditions, which is probably why they have escaped our discovery for so long. Here are just a few examples of what scientists are doing to make us more bio-literate.
If you'd like to read more awesome and interesting stuff, check out this unrelated (but not entirely random!) Techdirt post