Celine Dion And Human Cannonballs: The Garcia v Google En Banc Oral Argument

from the copyright-on-trial dept

Background

Garcia v. Google. If it weren't for the Monkey Selfie, this case would have been the topic most on the lips copyright and Internet lawyers this year. The facts here, of course, are much less humorous: Garcia, an actress, was allegedly duped by a filmmaker into appearing in his eventually-titled "Innocence of Muslims" movie, which eventually turned out to be an anti-Muslim cinematic screed. A lot of people were offended, and some channeled their outrage into threats against her. Garcia sued the filmmaker for the harm she believes he caused her, but that's not the issue here.

What is the issue is why this case has turned into such a mess, because what she really wants is for the movie to go away. So she also sued Google to make it go away – or at least have the court order Google to remove it from YouTube. The thing is, though, courts aren't supposed to be able to simply order content to be deleted, and for some very good reasons. We have laws (notably Section 230) that insulate intermediaries from take down orders because ordering content to be taken offline means ordering content to be censored.

However, as those who have read Techdirt for any length of time know, American law seems to have a "censorship is bad except when it comes to copyrighted content" exception. Intermediaries are not insulated from demands to take down content when the person asking for its removal can claim that the reason it needs to be removed is because it violates their copyright.

But even then there are some limits on the injunctive power of a court to order content to be removed, particularly at the preliminary injunction stage, which, believe it or not given everything that's followed, is only as far as her case had gotten. Generally speaking, preliminary injunctions are only issued when there is a likelihood that the party seeking the injunction will ultimately win the case, as well as a likelihood of irreparable harm to it if the court does not issue an injunction right away, before there has been a chance to evaluate the lawsuit on its merits. The district court considering Garcia's request for a preliminary injunction rejected it on both counts. It didn't appear Garcia had a valid copyright to sue Google for infringing, and even if she might have, there was no need to issue an injunction before the court had a chance to fully consider the question.

And that would have been the end of it, except the Ninth Circuit, in a three-judge panel led by Judge Kozinski, decided otherwise, first finding her a copyright interest and then using it as the basis to issue a broad injunction to Google ordering the film's removal from YouTube (the injunction was later dialed back somewhat, but it still remained quite expansive). Which is what caused all this consternation, because if Judge Kozinski were right about her having a legitimate copyright claim, it would stand to change copyright law from how we understood Congress to have crafted it, as well as set the stage for even more efforts to censor online content.

So Google, backed by 10 amicus briefs (including one I wrote on behalf of Techdirt and the Organization for Transformative Works) petitioned the Ninth Circuit for a "rehearing en banc," which basically asks the entire circuit to rethink this decision, given how much it would wreck if it remained valid precedent. And it worked! The Circuit agreed to reconsider the case and held a hearing on it yesterday in Pasadena.

The Hearing

It was not actually necessary to be at the hearing to follow along given that it was also streamed (and tweeted...). As it was, one judge out of the 11-judge panel, Judge Berzon, participated remotely. But there are always certain intangibles that can only be experienced in person, like seeing what appeared to be some representative of the defendant filmmaker distribute nicely xeroxed packets of propaganda advertising the book of the script for his "Innocence of Muslims" film to everyone in the gallery before the hearing began…

As for the hearing itself, it took about an hour and essentially ended up focusing on these two questions: whether Garcia could have a copyright interest in the 5 seconds she appeared in the final film, and whether the preliminary injunction was appropriate. But the unusual procedural posture of the case caused the two questions to frequently blur together.

Garcia's lawyer argued first and opened with, "Cindy Lee Garcia is an ordinary women surviving under extraordinary circumstances." She then went on to spell out some of the awful threats she had gotten, but then the judges quickly jumped in to ask how those threats bear on the preliminary injunction standard. (Note: I frequently refer to the "court" generally, rather than identify the judges specifically, although I did note some of Judge Kozinski's lines of inquiry due to his particular effect on this case earlier.) Garcia argued that because some of these threats were death threats, that supported the argument that without the injunction she was facing irreparable harm. That may be so, the court then asked, but the possibility of irreparable harm was only one factor considered by the district court. To get her injunction there had to be a threat of irreparable harm as well as a likelihood that she would win on her copyright claim against Google. How was the district court wrong when it decided she had no copyright claim to prevail on?

One issue for Garcia (which the court kept coming back to in various respects) is that she had expressly disclaimed having a copyright in the final movie as a joint author. It's an argument that comes up from time to time when people who worked on larger productions try to claim partial ownership in the final product on the strength of their contributions to it. As courts, including the Ninth Circuit, have considered the question they generally have looked to the intention of the parties at the outset that all the "contributions be merged into inseparable or interdependent parts of a unitary whole." But Garcia wasn't arguing that she now owned a piece of the final "Innocence of Muslims" film; she was arguing that she owned a copyright in her performance made during the 3.5 days of filming.

The court worried about the implications of her argument. What was to keep everyone who made a cameo in a Lord of the Rings battle scene from also claiming a copyright interest in their performance? Garcia's answer seemed to get at the heart of her copyright claim. In the court's example everyone knew what the deal was when they worked on the movie. They had agreed, expressly or impliedly, that their performances be captured as part of the whole. But for Garcia, she never consented to ending up in what turned out to be the "Innocence of Muslims" film. The filmmaker had duped her into agreeing to appear in one sort of movie but then used her performance in something completely different. This deception unwound the agreement to subordinate her performance into the whole and allowed her to retain her copyright in the individual contribution.

The court seemed skeptical about this theory, for a number of reasons. For one, where was the work? While on the one hand it often seems like everything is copyrightable these days, its applicability is extremely technical. It requires an (a) original (b) work of (c) authorship that is (d) fixed in a tangible medium. As Google also later argued, she hadn't made out all of these elements in attesting to the copyrightability of her individual performance made over those 3.5 days. (There is also the issue that of her 3.5-days' worth of performance, only 5 seconds of it ever made it into the film.)

The court also worried about what the impact of her theory would be. If her retaining a copyright in her performance hinged on the deception, then what was to stop any actor from claiming fraud or mistake and allowing them to claim copyright in their performances as well? This question was particularly relevant for Google's position, which was argued next. Could all these people then issue takedown notices to intermediaries? As Judge McKeown noted, it would put intermediaries "at risk for thousands, millions of claims made after the fact." Would all of them have to act to remove this content lest they end up like Google and find themselves on the receiving end of a lawsuit?

In her rebuttal Garcia argued yes. The DMCA (or "free pass card," as she referred to it) protected intermediaries by getting them out of the dispute between the party who posted content, and the party claiming copyright in it. As long as it deleted the content as soon as it got notice, it could then let the parties fight it out. Google says taking down content is easy, she argued. We're not asking them to do something hard.

As Google argued during its turn, however, the implications of Garcia's argument are chilling (particularly, as we argued in our brief, for intermediaries who are not as large or well-funded as Google and for whom taking down content may well be much harder than she described for Google). If all it takes is a claim of fraud to claim a copyright interest, Google argued, it "fragments" copyright and makes every intermediary vulnerable. They can't adjudge the merits of every copyright claim. Allowing these sorts of claims, especially if they could be predicated on but five seconds of material, would "overload the takedown system." Intermediaries would simply have to delete content in order to protect themselves, and that would lead to the censorship of myriad protectable speech.

Other Arguments

Google made one other main point during its argument, targeting the preliminary injunction the Ninth Circuit had issued and similarly to how the EFF had questioned it in its amicus brief. The appeals court had enjoined speech, and as such there was a question of whether that was permissible under other standards governing injunctions. Garcia argued that it was, saying that there was a difference in the standard governing whether it was a mandatory injunction, which asks someone to do something, and a prohibitory injunction, which restricts someone from doing something in the future. This was a prohibitory injunction, she argued, because all the panel had decided to do is restrict further infringement. Google argued otherwise.

When it changes the status quo, it's a mandatory injunction. Here there was speech, but as a result of the injunction speech was removed. That makes it look like a mandatory injunction and thus requires a much stronger showing than Garcia could provide that it was warranted. After all, as Judge Thomas noted, "Is there anyone in the world who doesn't know your client is associated with this movie by now?" The damage has already been done, the "toothpaste out of the tube," as Google put it, and nothing to be accomplished by censoring the movie now.

The court also tested Google on its argument against Garcia having a copyright, and this discussion led to the examples cited in the title, the first of which being poor Celine Dion who kept being called upon to test various theories. Why does she get a copyright in her singing performance included in Titanic, Judge Kozinski wondered, but not Laurence Olivier for his performance in a film? To which Google answered that when Celine Dion recorded her song the intention was always that the performance be a standalone work then also included in the larger one, whereas for Olivier there was never an intention that his performance ever be considered some individually copyrightable work.

In her rebuttal Garcia took issue with the Celine Dion example. If she had been singing on the bow of the ship, intending for her appearance doing that to become part of the movie, it would have been one thing. But it's another if then the filmmakers, having captured her performance, then distribute the clip of it to pornographers to be put in their movies. Garcia's argument is that something similar had happened here, where a performance made in one context she had allowed got used in another that she hadn't. The question, though, is not whether the law would recognize this injury but whether copyright is the law that does. There are other laws that recognize rights that might be implicated, such as those establishing rights of publicity.

Interestingly a right of publicity case led to another detour by Judge Kozinski to test the contours of Google's argument, and that raised the second example in the headline. Google had argued that there was no precedent "that a 5 second performance is a separate copyright work." Judge Kozinski countered by citing Zacchini v. Scripps-Howard Broadcasting, where 15 seconds of Zacchini's performance had been broadcast on local TV. Because Zacchini was a human cannonball, however, those 15 seconds constituted a significant part of his performance. The Supreme Court found that the rebroadcast may well have caused him an injury the law recognized. But while the Zacchini case stands for the proposition that there can be something to protect in very short performances, it doesn't stand for the proposition that they are necessarily protected by copyright.

This is an important distinction, because violations of rights of publicity are governed by state law, and intermediaries are insulated from injunctions ordering the removal of content reflecting these injuries by Section 230. The Garcia v. Google case has been about forcing these sorts of injuries to be evaluated through the lens of copyright solely to avoid the bar prohibiting these injunctions, and if this sort of Section 230 end-run is allowed to work here, as Google (and many amici) argued, it will enable all sorts of censorious mischief.

(Note: Judge Kozinski also spent some time exploring the impact of the Beijing AVP treaty on the case at hand, but I will leave it to others to explore the potential implications of this argument, as they are worthy of their own post).

Reader Comments

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  • identicon
    Anonymous Coward, 16 Dec 2014 @ 1:55pm

    So basically, she should just sue the filmmaker for fraud or whatever she wants to say happened and should argue to get awarded the copyright to the film in the judgment if she wins and then she can issue a proper takedown. Suing Google to take down something she doesn't yet (or ever) have rights to seems like tortious interference on top of the perjury of claiming to own the copyright in the DMCA notice.

    reply to this | link to this | view in chronology ]

    • icon
      jupiterkansas (profile), 16 Dec 2014 @ 2:10pm

      Re:

      This is the logical thing. But logic doesn't seem to apply to copyright anymore.

      reply to this | link to this | view in chronology ]

    • icon
      art guerrilla (profile), 17 Dec 2014 @ 5:46am

      Re:

      she was 'duped' into the performance ? ? ? not sure how that works, and i would bet dollars to donut holes that there are PLENTY of instances where actors were told one thing, but the project morphs into something else... life changes, don't it...

      further, does this mean that any/all actors can now sue if they simply don't like how their character is portrayed ? ? ?
      so, there is no need for actual directors and film editors any longer, the actors are going to be in charge of those decisions ? ? ?

      um, that kind of obviates the whole point of producers/directors imposing THEIR creative vision on the movie/whatever...

      suck it up and move on, entitled wench, nobody cares but you...

      reply to this | link to this | view in chronology ]

    • identicon
      Michael, 17 Dec 2014 @ 6:21am

      Re:

      No, the problem is that she can simply say there was fraud - you don't even have to sue for it - and can then issue a DMCA takedown notice.

      reply to this | link to this | view in chronology ]

      • identicon
        Anonymous Coward, 17 Dec 2014 @ 6:46am

        Re: Re:

        There is no basis for a DMCA takedown notice based on "fraud" since that's not an infringement of a copyright claim. This whole thing is nothing more than another tired attempt to plead around Section 230 - which precludes any remedy against the internet intermediaries, including injunctions - by masquerading a state law tort claim as a federal copyright claim. The trial court got it right and appeal panel made a total hash of it. Garcia went into this with open eyes and was defrauded - her remedy lies against the person who defrauded her and her available relief is monetary, not an injunction. It's as simple as that and has been from the outset. Why the 9th Circuit panel created this totally unnecessary mess is mystifying.

        reply to this | link to this | view in chronology ]

  • icon
    hij (profile), 16 Dec 2014 @ 2:01pm

    symptom not the problem

    Part of me wants this case to succeed. Copyright is hopelessly contorted to favour a few people who make content available to the detriment of the actual producers of content. This case would shift the balance of power, and it would do it to the point to make the current copyright regime completely untenable.

    Unfortunately, I do not expect the current (or next) government to actually fix the problem and turn it into something more closely resembling sanity. Damned if you do and damned if you don't.

    reply to this | link to this | view in chronology ]

    • identicon
      Anonymous Coward, 16 Dec 2014 @ 2:18pm

      Re: symptom not the problem

      Were this case to succeed, copyright would be adjudicated (a messy and expensive process), rather than legislated (which is a whole different order of messy).

      reply to this | link to this | view in chronology ]

    • identicon
      RR, 16 Dec 2014 @ 6:21pm

      Re: symptom not the problem

      This does sound like a good way to destroy the copyright industry. I'm all for it.

      reply to this | link to this | view in chronology ]

    • identicon
      Anonymous Coward, 16 Dec 2014 @ 8:48pm

      Re: symptom not the problem

      It would be better to make copyrights non-transferable except to the public domain. There'd need to be some sorting when it came to collaborative works though.

      reply to this | link to this | view in chronology ]

  • icon
    John Fenderson (profile), 16 Dec 2014 @ 2:31pm

    She did succeed in one thing

    When I think of Garcia, I no longer really think of her as "that poor woman in the Innocence of Muslims." Instead, I think of her as "that crazy copyright chick."

    reply to this | link to this | view in chronology ]

  • icon
    jameshogg (profile), 16 Dec 2014 @ 3:37pm

    Good post. And all Garcia really did was conclusively demonstrate how mixing the separate and unrelated issues of copyright and defamation into the same legal sphere leads to all kinds of stupidity, such as this.

    It's a philosophical defeat for the copyright believers.

    Personally, I think that if fuckers are sending death threats to her in the full knowledge - the full knowledge that these fascists must have - that she was dubbed over and did not actually say what it appears, yet still continue to intimidate and frighten her, all the separate copyright provisions in the world are not going to protect her.

    She needs to take the side of people like Salman Rushdie and Ayaan Hirsi Ali, and say that an attack on her is an attack on everybody who wants to treat Islam with the same levels of criticism as any other religion.

    Because religion poisons everything.

    reply to this | link to this | view in chronology ]

    • icon
      JP Jones (profile), 17 Dec 2014 @ 7:10pm

      Re:

      She needs to take the side of people like Salman Rushdie and Ayaan Hirsi Ali, and say that an attack on her is an attack on everybody who wants to treat Islam with the same levels of criticism as any other religion.

      Heh, this made me laugh out loud. Religions don't want to be criticized. Criticism leads to rational thought, and rational thought is the antithesis of faith...and faith is the foundation of religion.

      Islam in particular needs to be cautious about rational thought because the history of the religion reveals, well, issues with its "legitimacy." At the risk of summoning the jihad, Islam has basically the same origin as Mormonism or (arguably) Christianity...it's a cultural offshoot of Judaism based around a charismatic leader.

      The sad part is that Islam freely acknowledges this while at the same time denying it. The Jewish and Christian Bible are both considered Muslim holy books and most of the holy figures from them are considered "great prophets of Islam." Yet Islam is the "true" religion, not the ones it's clearly based on. This makes perfect sense through the lens of "faith" but defies logical reasoning.

      But hey, when you have a vocal minority that immediately threatens to murder anyone who says something bad about your particular brand of cultural brainwashing, and a silent majority that refuses to condemn them because they are both secretly offended by the criticism and scared of the same psychopaths giving the death threats, it's pretty easy to keep people from thinking too hard.

      Because religion poisons everything.

      This, a hundred times. I often hear arguments that "religion brings out the best in people" through charity and good behavior, but in my opinion someone who does the right thing just because they're scared of eternal punishment or to get brownie points for the afterlife isn't really that good of a person. The best people are those that do the right thing because they want to make the world around them a better place and do it without any thought of reward or other benefit to themselves.

      That being said, I'm not 100% certain there are no supernatural being(s) that influence and/or observe reality. I am, however, 100% certain that they don't follow any of our religions. I can't imagine the hubris that makes people think that any sort of God would follow their rules.

      reply to this | link to this | view in chronology ]

  • identicon
    Pegr, 16 Dec 2014 @ 4:25pm

    Reminds me...

    This (great) Techdirt post reminds me of how much I miss GrokLaw.

    reply to this | link to this | view in chronology ]

  • identicon
    Anonymous Coward, 16 Dec 2014 @ 4:47pm

    The DMCA (or "free pass card," as she referred to it)

    And therein lies the problem with copyright. It enables assholes who think they're entitled to do whatever the hell they want.

    reply to this | link to this | view in chronology ]

  • identicon
    Anonymous Coward, 16 Dec 2014 @ 11:16pm

    "The DMCA (or "free pass card," as she referred to it)"

    unbelievable

    reply to this | link to this | view in chronology ]

  • identicon
    Anonymous Coward, 17 Dec 2014 @ 7:16am

    Thank you Sonny Bozo

    Copyright used to be about forcing works into the public domain after a "limited" period of time. Copyright in a nutshell. It's morphed into something almost unrecognizable. I think we either need to shorten copyrights to the original term, or let's extent patents for the same time, so that both can be a "limited" period of time.

    reply to this | link to this | view in chronology ]


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