Sorry Fair Use, Court Says News Clipping Service Infringes On AP Copyrights

from the fair-use,-what's-that? dept

We were surprised last year when the Associated Press decided to sue Meltwater News -- an online press clipping/news aggregator service. The issue is that Meltwater does index various news articles, just like Google, allowing you to search on them. But it does not deliver the full articles to users instead delivering snippets (just like Google News), and then points them to versions online (increasing traffic to AP stories). It delivers two snippets -- the first is only 300 characters, representing the opening of the article, and the second of less than 140 characters, highlighting the line that triggered the alert itself (i.e., matching keywords). However, Meltwater also has a feature that lets subscribers choose to archive the text of articles they find elsewhere -- like a ReadItLater/EverNote/Instapaper kind of thing. But that's all done at user discretion, not by Meltwater.

Not surprisingly, we found Meltwater's response to the lawsuit quite compelling. It argued a strong fair use right, combined with claims of copyright misuse by the AP. Unfortunately, the court did not find them compelling. The district court has sided with the Associated Press in ruling for summary judgment against Meltwater, a ruling that will surely be appealed.

The ruling itself has a ton of problems, that hopefully will be fixed by an appeals court. The court seems strongly influenced by the fact that the AP has a service that competes with Meltwater, but that, alone, is no basis for finding infringement. Also, it notes that other "competitors" in the space do have AP licenses, including Google News. But that's misleading. The AP had threatened Google News with a similar lawsuit, but they got around it with a silly agreement by which Google licenses AP news to post full stories as if it were an AP syndication partner. But that's not what Meltwater does.

The court doesn't agree with the fair use defense by Meltwater, but does so with some really wacky reasoning. It runs through the standard four factor test, but really has a unique interpretation of what counts as "transformative" use, somehow arguing that the use needs to be an entirely new form of use to be transformative.
Based on the undisputed facts in this record, Meltwater provides the online equivalent to the traditional news clipping service. Indeed, Meltwater has described itself as adding “game-changing technology for the traditional press clipping market.” There is nothing transformative about that function.
I don't think that's what transformative means. No one said it had to be innovative -- just different from the purpose of the original work.

Separately, the court argues that because Meltwater competes with one part of the AP's business, then the transformative argument doesn't apply.
Meltwater copies AP content in order to make money directly from the undiluted use of the copyrighted material; this is the central feature of its business model and not an incidental consequence of the use to which it puts the copyrighted material. Thus, it is not surprising that Meltwater’s own marketing materials convey an intent to serve as a substitute for AP’s news service.
That, unfortunately, is confusing two different aspects of the AP's business. There's the reporting side which produces the news, and then there's the "news service" side, which sells the service of providing news alerts to various customers. Meltwater is competing with the latter, but the copyrights in question apply to the former -- and thus Meltwater's use should be seen as transformative since it is not competing with the copyright around the creation and presentation of the news itself, but rather with the service of finding the most relevant news.

Furthermore, the court keeps going back to the low rate of clickthrough on Meltwater's clips. But that, too, is misleading. First of all, this could just be because Meltwater's relevance engine isn't very good. If it's not delivering relevant content, then people won't click very much. But that should hardly weigh on the copyright claim. Alternatively, perhaps it's the Associated Press's content that isn't very good. That is, readers see little reason to click on their versions of the story. Again, the actual click through rate on such stories is somewhat meaningless and certainly doesn't suggest that people are using the AP less because of Meltwater. They still may be articles that that people wouldn't see otherwise, it's just that for, whatever reason, people didn't click through them that much. Also, you have to look at how many people use clipping services anyway -- it's not necessarily to read each and every article, but to do a quick skim and see if there's anything really important they need to know about or to get a general sense of coverage out there. None of those would result in clicks. But that doesn't mean that Meltwater doesn't overall increase absolute clicks to AP articles simply by exposing them to more people.

In the discussion on the "amount" of work use, the court again runs into trouble, arguing ridiculously that taking the opening (or "the lede") from every article is somehow against a finding of fair use:
Meltwater took between 4.5% and 61% of the Registered Articles. It automatically took the lede from every AP story. As described by AP’s Standards Editor, the lede is “meant to convey the heart of the story.” A lede is a sentence that takes significant journalistic skill to craft. There is no other single sentence from an AP story that is as consistently important from article to article –- neither the final sentence nor any sentence that begins any succeeding paragraph in the story.
In other words, Meltwater is smartly using the first sentence to highlight what an article is about. Without that, it's service is a lot less useful. But that doesn't change the nature of the overall issue, which is that it's still only offering up a small portion of the content in question.

The court also seems to think it knows how to run a search engine:
Next, Meltwater argues that the extent of its copying is justified because its purpose is to serve as a search engine. But, Meltwater has failed to show that it takes only that amount of material from AP’s articles that is necessary for it to function as a search engine. Indeed, the evidence is compellingly to the contrary.
I'm curious. What is "the amount necessary to function as a search engine?" One might reasonably suggest that a search engine would be wise to index everything. Yet the court here seems to be suggesting otherwise. I'm curious how many search engines the judge has built.

Basically, Meltwater points out that what it does is no different than a search engine, and the court says (without much basis) that it doesn't think Meltwater really is a search engine, and thus these defenses don't apply. But this is extremely troubling for actual search engines, because you can take each of the pieces out and then try to apply them to a basic search engine, and you'll find that if this ruling stands, it makes being a search engine much more difficult as well.

The court, also worryingly, rejects Meltwater's argument that because the AP did not block it via robots.txt, that it is providing an implicit license to index the site.
The implied license that Meltwater is advocating would reach to every web crawler with no distinction between those who make fair use and those who do not, or between those whose uses may be publicly observed and those whose uses are hidden within closed, subscriber systems. Meltwater has presented no evidence to suggest that robots.txt instructions are capable of communicating which types of use the copyright holder is permitting the web crawler to make of the content or the extent of the copying the copyright holder will allow.
Again, this appears to be off the mark, conflating a few separate issues. First, it's a combination both of (a) publishing openly online and (b) not using robots.txt that suggests an implied license to index. The court ignores the (a) part, and seems to give much more weight to the argument that it's just (b) being implied. Second, it ignores the fact that this is solely about the implied license to index. There could still be infringement for what's done with the index, but that's separate from the indexing itself.

The court doubles down on this mistake.
There is yet another policy reason against the use of robots.txt protocol to enforce the Copyright Act. The protocol is a helpful innovation that gives instructions to cooperating crawlers. But, in the interest of openness on the Internet, one would expect it to be used only when it is in the clear interest of the website to broadly limit access. It is fair to assume that most Internet users (and many owners of websites) would like crawlers employed by search engines to visit as many websites as possible, to include those websites in their search results, and thereby to direct viewers to a vast array of sites. Adopting Meltwater’s position would require websites concerned about improper copying to signal crawlers that they are not welcome.
Again, that's not true. Sites concerned about improper copying can still use copyright law against the actual improper copying outside of the indexing. It's never the indexing that's the problem, but what that index is used for.

We had also noted, when Meltwater responded to the AP's claims, that it argued that the AP was engaged in copyright misuse. The court dismisses this point quickly. Not only is copyright misuse not established as a copyright defense in the Second Circuit, where the case is being heard, but the court argues that Meltwater has done little to show actual misuse by the AP.

There are numerous problems with this ruling, and I imagine the case will get even more interesting on appeal, as lots of internet companies who rely on fair use for scraping content suddenly need to be paying attention to the specifics of this case.


Reader Comments (rss)

(Flattened / Threaded)

  1.  
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    Chosen Reject (profile), Mar 21st, 2013 @ 2:33pm

    It automatically took the lede from every AP story. As described by AP’s Standards Editor, the lede is “meant to convey the heart of the story.” A lede is a sentence that takes significant journalistic skill to craft. There is no other single sentence from an AP story that is as consistently important from article to article –- neither the final sentence nor any sentence that begins any succeeding paragraph in the story.
    So quoting the most important part of a work is now automatic copyright infringement?
    Darth Vader: Obi-Wan never told you what happened to your father.
    Luke Skywalker: He told me enough! He told me you killed him!
    Darth Vader: No. I am your father.
    Oh NO! I just infringed on The Empire Strikes Back. I'll go turn myself in now.

     

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  2.  
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    Anonymous Coward, Mar 21st, 2013 @ 2:33pm

    is there ever going to be a chance that a judge hearing a case over copyright will know the law and be able to rule using the law or is it always going to be the complete screw up where the judge doesn't have a damn clue what he is listening or which way to fall?

     

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  3.  
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    jupiterkansas (profile), Mar 21st, 2013 @ 2:35pm

    If the AP thinks all their newsworthiness is in their headlines, then why do they bother to write articles?

    Obviously if I'm interested in something, I'm going to click on the link and go to the AP-approved website to read something. This is all pure marketing for AP. They are helping AP make money.

     

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  4.  
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    Rich, Mar 21st, 2013 @ 2:38pm

    Re:

    Wait, so Dark Helmet has an illegitimate son?

     

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  5. This comment has been flagged by the community. Click here to show it
     
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    out_of_the_blue, Mar 21st, 2013 @ 2:51pm

    Citation needed! "(increasing traffic to AP stories)"

    That's just your wacky notion that skimming the value from a creator is necessarily of benefit to that creator, so shouldn't complain, let alone sue! -- You then fade to some "could be due to" conjectures.

    But here you admit what your pals are actually doing: "lots of internet companies who rely on fair use for scraping content" -- Yes, grifters who rely on someone else doing all the WORK, and then leveraging the value of that WORK to mis-direct the revenue streams TO the grifters, AWAY FROM the creator. -- That version of "business model" must be stymied, and I even hope that a proper and FAIR apportioning of the income streams empowers Big Media, cause they're doing the actual work!

    I'm not fond of AP, but it's clearly got ALL of the merits here.



    Take a loopy tour of Techdirt.com! You always end up same place!
    http://techdirt.com/
    Where Mike "supports copyright" -- except when he supports grifters who use copyrighted material.
    10:50:32[l-501-5]

     

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  6.  
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    sheenyglass (profile), Mar 21st, 2013 @ 3:10pm

    Not sure why there's no argument of de minimis use. Seems pretty applicable here - the use is no more extensive than if someone were using the article as a secondary source and quoting from it

     

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    Anonymous Coward, Mar 21st, 2013 @ 3:32pm

    Wow, your week started so promising with Kirtsaeng; then threatened legislation to fix Kirtsaeng; then a ruinous decision on Isohunt; then this. I'm looking forward to tomorrow. My week keeps getting better and better.

     

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    nom de plume, Mar 21st, 2013 @ 4:22pm

    I'm repeatedly in awe whenever Techdirt analyzes a legal issue or court opinion. The author here spends a lot of time dissecting this opinion but without a clear understanding of the law to inform his analysis. It's as if he's read a lot about the law but has never studied it. Techdirt should find writers with a legal background. And if this author does have legal training, then I'm at a loss for further words.

     

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    Anonymous Coward, Mar 21st, 2013 @ 4:27pm

    And if this author does have legal training, then I'm at a loss for further words.

    No legal training, but enormous expertise as a piracy apologist.

     

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    Anonymous Coward, Mar 21st, 2013 @ 4:28pm

    Re:

    I'm repeatedly in awe whenever Techdirt analyzes a legal issue or court opinion. The author here spends a lot of time dissecting this opinion but without a clear understanding of the law to inform his analysis. It's as if he's read a lot about the law but has never studied it. Techdirt should find writers with a legal background. And if this author does have legal training, then I'm at a loss for further words.

    Exactly. It's so bad it hurts. I think you're missing the fact though that Mike is a willfully blind pirate apologist who cares not about "getting it right." It's a propaganda blog, not a law blog.

     

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    Anonymous Coward, Mar 21st, 2013 @ 4:33pm

    Re:

    No legal training, but enormous expertise as a piracy apologist.

    Props where props are due. Mike is one of the best apologists out there. To this day, I still sometimes can't tell whether he's honestly misunderstanding something and whether he's dishonestly misrepresenting it. Kudos to Pirate Mike, King of the Apologists. He's good at what he does. Too bad what he does sucks balls and is fundamentally dishonest.

     

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    Anonymous Coward, Mar 21st, 2013 @ 4:34pm

    Re:

    Wow, your week started so promising with Kirtsaeng; then threatened legislation to fix Kirtsaeng; then a ruinous decision on Isohunt; then this. I'm looking forward to tomorrow. My week keeps getting better and better.

    Once the Six Strikes "victims" start pouring in, he'll be back on top of the pirate heap.

     

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  13.  
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    Duke (profile), Mar 21st, 2013 @ 4:49pm

    Re:

    So quoting the most important part of a work is now automatic copyright infringement?
    Not necessarily automatic, but this is how copyright has worked in the EU for a few years now - when working out whether a "substantial part" of the work has been copied, you look at how much was taken both quantitatively and qualitatively.

    With the ESB quote, you probably don't have enough as there are other major parts the script - while that is the most famous (if usually mis-quoted) line, it isn't the only part that matters. But the idea is that if you copy the bit that has the "value", you are copying a substantial part (or something like that).

    But then you have the various limitation and exceptions.

    The Meltwater case is an interesting one - it started in the UK a few years ago and led to a really crazy ruling (that merely receiving an email was a prima facie infringement of copyright). The UK Supreme Court heard the case last month, but it doesn't look like they'll have a judgment finished before the Easter break.

     

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    vegetaman (profile), Mar 21st, 2013 @ 4:54pm

    Re:

    I think the terribly self-serving ego boost they are trying to pull off by pretending that every lede is like a gift from some proverbial god is the biggest laugh of all, honestly.

    Especially the part where they're undoubtedly 100% serious about it. Can you imagine? lol

     

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    Anonymous Coward, Mar 21st, 2013 @ 5:23pm

    Re: Re:

    I'm looking forward to hearing all of the creative stories of victimhood and being wrongfully accused. Though, I'd have thought by now there'd have been screaming headlines. My guess is a small percentage went underground but a large percent just stopped stealing.

     

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  16.  
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    Pixelation, Mar 21st, 2013 @ 5:41pm

    Re:

    My curiosity is piqued. Please enlighten us as to the mistakes in the article, or are you just full of it?

     

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    bob, Mar 21st, 2013 @ 6:21pm

    Re:

    I don't know why he bothers with even reading it because he's like the Queen in Alice in Wonderland. He decides what outcome he wants and then concemns any line of reasoning that doesn't produce what he wants to hear. This is the same fantastic reasoning we see out of some wacko, pothead tenured law professors too.

    Once again, he forgets that there are living, breathing, mortgage-paying journalists on the other side of this case. Maybe they don't want their hard work appropriated by a bunch of people who don't contribute anything.

    Fair use was invented to defend the people who advance our knowledge. The quotation was designed to allow people to extend what we know. These morons at Meltbrain just wanted to pilfer and avoid doing any work on their own.

     

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  18.  
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    Alana (profile), Mar 21st, 2013 @ 7:36pm

    Wow. The trolls are infesting this thread like the plague.

     

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    out_of_the_blue, Mar 21st, 2013 @ 8:24pm

    Key point is Mike believes commercial interests are due "fair use"!

    This occurred upon review (as there's nothing new up).

    Mike clearly holds that "fair use" should be the same for commercial or non-commercial uses! But "fair use should only apply to persons -- I mean specifically just to "natural persons" as forced to make clear after our traitorous servants on the Supreme Court raised fictional corporate "persons" to at least equal status -- using the work for public purposes, NOT to corporations using the works for private gain.

    I'm sure that now is made clear, Mike will NOT see the flaws in his reasoning, but will continue on his pro-corporate agenda, and yet perhaps it'll help the non-biased to decide because commercial use is not "fair use".

    [As usual on Techdirt, after six hours, a fanboy-troll has only a one-liner complaining about "trolls". It's a truly self-referential website.]



    Take a loopy tour of Techdirt.com! You always end up same place!
    http://techdirt.com/
    Where Mike SUPPORTS COPYRIGHT -- except when he supports grifters who use someone else's copyrighted material.
    16:24:30[r-577-3]

     

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  20.  
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    Rikuo (profile), Mar 21st, 2013 @ 8:59pm

    Re: Key point is Mike believes commercial interests are due "fair use"!

    "As usual on Techdirt, after six hours, a fanboy-troll has only a one-liner complaining about "trolls". It's a truly self-referential website."

    You really need to borrow a dictionary and look up the meaning of self-referential. Or you can, you know, Google it.

    Also, are you actually complaining at the fact that for some odd reason, we haven't decided to rip apart everything you and the other trolls have said? We've done it day in day out for years now, and not once have you guys paused, read our criticisms, reflected on it and come to the conclusion that you were wrong. No, you guys come here, vomit forth complete falsehoods and utter insane statements. More than likely, the rest of us Techdirtians just didn't feel like it tonight.

     

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  21.  
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    Anonymous Coward, Mar 21st, 2013 @ 9:03pm

    Re: Key point is Mike believes commercial interests are due "fair use"!

    You need serious help.

     

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  22.  
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    Anonymous Coward, Mar 21st, 2013 @ 10:09pm

    "Not surprisingly, we found Meltwater's response to the lawsuit quite compelling. It argued a strong fair use right, combined with claims of copyright misuse by the AP."

    Of course you did since the general tenor of arguments and comments here by far overwhelm those comments that may offer counter opinions. Fair Use is nuanced, a point that is almost universally ignored in articles published here.

     

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  23.  
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    Pixelation, Mar 21st, 2013 @ 10:38pm

    Re:

    "Fair Use is nuanced, a point that is almost universally ignored in articles published here."

    Here is your opportunity to enlighten us. Give us examples of this nuance you mention.

     

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  24.  
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    Anonymous Coward, Mar 21st, 2013 @ 11:18pm

    Re:

    They're obviously all from AP......

     

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  25.  
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    Ninja (profile), Mar 22nd, 2013 @ 3:26am

    These lawsuits are good to show you where not to go. They show shortsightedness, megalomania and the will to control. Those are not what is expected from somebody doing the reporting.

    Instead of accusing Meltwater of ethereal losses why don't they do a simple analysis of the overall traffic and the trends regarding news aggregators? You see, Melt is not the only service that does this out there...

     

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  26.  
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    bob, Mar 22nd, 2013 @ 3:50am

    Re: Re:

    The commercial effects are important. If the leech is undermining the commercial viability of the real source, the marketplace has to protect the original source. The marketplace has to protect the people who do work, not the loser who do nothing and try to freeload off someone and call it fair use.

     

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  27.  
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    Anonymous Coward, Mar 22nd, 2013 @ 5:19am

    Re: Citation needed! "(increasing traffic to AP stories)"

    The fact that fair use and public domain are actual things must really keep you up at night.

     

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  28.  
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    Anonymous Coward, Mar 22nd, 2013 @ 5:22am

    Re: Re: Re:

    Alternatively no one has been issued a sixth strike yet because of fear of a backlash.

     

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  29.  
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    Anonymous Coward, Mar 22nd, 2013 @ 5:24am

    Re:

    It's like they all showed up after the ISOhunt case to spread confusion.

     

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  30.  
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    Anonymous Coward, Mar 22nd, 2013 @ 5:30am

    Re: Re: Re:

    My guess is a small percentage went underground but a large percent just stopped stealing.

    Nothing upsets Mike more than the thought that pirates might stop infringing. The horror!

     

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  31.  
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    Anonymous Coward, Mar 22nd, 2013 @ 5:31am

    Re: Re: Citation needed! "(increasing traffic to AP stories)"

    The fact that fair use and public domain are actual things must really keep you up at night.

    I love fair use and the public domain. I just don't deify them like you and Mike do.

     

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  32.  
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    Anonymous Coward, Mar 22nd, 2013 @ 5:33am

    Re: Key point is Mike believes commercial interests are due "fair use"!

    This really doesn't have anything at all to do with corporations but it's cute how you try to twist everything into the kind of class war narrative that you love to harp on. You're also wrong about the Citizen's United decision you're referencing, it didn't have anything to do with corporate person hood. A concept, I might add, that was created so that people could sue a corporation and hold them liable for things. An ironic origin given how you characterize it as a way to let corporations get away with things they shouldn't have a right to do.

    commercial use is not "fair use"


    The copyright office disagrees providing "a list of the various purposes for which the reproduction of a particular work may be considered fair, such as criticism, comment, news reporting, teaching, scholarship, and research." Clearly many of those uses are commercial. You've mistaken the fact that the commercial nature of the use is a factor in the fair use test for it being universally exclusionary. It's not.

     

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  33.  
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    Anonymous Coward, Mar 22nd, 2013 @ 5:35am

    Re:

    And almost universally ignored in the offered counter opinions which have opined recently that "commercial use is not "fair use."" Obviously you didn't say that but the knife certainly cuts both ways on that point.

     

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  34.  
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    Anonymous Coward, Mar 22nd, 2013 @ 5:37am

    Re: Re: Re:

    Are you using 'the marketplace' as a euphemism or something because it played no role here. Your puerile analysis seems like it would apply equally to any fair use and for that reason is easily rejected as obviously 'nothing is fair use' is hardly an example of 'nuance.'

     

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    lhblotto (profile), Mar 22nd, 2013 @ 6:23am

    cote

    Same judge that decimated the fair use doctrine in the Richard Prince case.

     

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  36.  
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    Niall (profile), Mar 22nd, 2013 @ 7:52am

    Re: Re:

    Well, Luke is legitimate, unless you take the line that Jedi not being allowed to marry/have relationships invalidates Anakin's marriage to Padme.

     

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  37.  
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    duffmeister (profile), Mar 22nd, 2013 @ 8:21am

    Re: Re:

    Rosebud was a sled.

    Yup, I just ruined a whole movie there..... does that make it important? Are all spoilers now infringement? Interesting thoughts on the implications of this idea if upheld.

     

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  38.  
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    MahaliaShere (profile), Mar 22nd, 2013 @ 8:30am

    Well now, here's another site to put in my hosts file. Been a while since I've done that.

     

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  39.  
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    Niall (profile), Mar 22nd, 2013 @ 8:46am

    Re: Citation needed! "(increasing traffic to AP stories)"

    I really hope that Google publish more stuff or take over some media company, because then they would be 'Big Media' instead of just 'Big Search', and your head would assplode from the (increased) cognitive dissonance...

     

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  40.  
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    Anonymous Coward, Mar 22nd, 2013 @ 10:28am

    Re: Re: Re: Citation needed! "(increasing traffic to AP stories)"

    That contrasts starkly with your comments above given that literally every invocation of fair use or the public domain is use by someone other than those 'who did the actual work' in your words.

     

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  41.  
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    RonKaminsky (profile), Mar 22nd, 2013 @ 11:49am

    Perhaps AP just had better lawyers?

    Even just looking at the docket, I get the impression that Meltwater's legal team wasn't at the same level as AP's. Haven't read the filings yet, so I could be wrong.

    Anyway, that's the weakness and the strength of the legal system: it's run by humans. If a judge doesn't have his own strong opinions about (or other familiarity with) the subject of the case, the arguments of the legal teams have much more weight.

     

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  42.  
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    The Real Michael, Mar 22nd, 2013 @ 12:04pm

    News-clipping service? Give me a break

    Apparently the Associated Press is unaware that PCs have the capability to copy & paste text from anywhere, let alone store websites digitally on the hard drive via the 'save as' function.

     

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  43.  
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    Jonathan, Mar 22nd, 2013 @ 5:31pm

    Re: Re: Re:

    Way to crater the middleman's entire business model...

     

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  44.  
    icon
    Duke (profile), Mar 23rd, 2013 @ 3:05am

    Re: Re: Re:

    No... because most of us don't watch films (or read film scripts) to find out what happens. We watch them for the experience as a whole. Thus even a spoiler isn't the only bit with "value" in it.

     

    reply to this | link to this | view in thread ]

  45.  
    identicon
    Anonymous Coward, Mar 23rd, 2013 @ 2:40pm

    Re: Re: Re:

    You're right, let's get rid of the *AA middlemen. Fucking freeloaders, every one of them.

     

    reply to this | link to this | view in thread ]

  46.  
    identicon
    Kevin Burton, Mar 25th, 2013 @ 2:06pm

    Open Access Coalition

    This is a BIT early but we're explicitly starting the Open Access Coalition to fight for free, open, and fair sharing of content on the Internet:

    http://openaccesscoalition.org

    Right now we have three member companies and should be 5 by the end of the week (we've only been live for about a week).

    I'd love someone from Meltwater to contact us - though I will also be reaching out privately.

    Kevin

     

    reply to this | link to this | view in thread ]


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