The unmodified NSA code can probably be treated as Public Domain, but the contributions from outsiders to the Apache Project are not government contributions and will be subject to the license limitations.
It makes sense to put it out as a licensed managed project, rather than simply posting the source & docs on a website and saying "This is public domain, take it or leave it".
The managed project will gather outside improvements that are then available for the classified internal version of NoSQL.
The reasoning behind the current system is that each budget request specifies what if being paid for. Unneeded money is then available for other agencies to use for their needs.
The effect of budget reviewers saying your are asking How Much!! for this change??? is simple. Budget authors pad the request and require the purchasing agents in the department to make sure the entire request is used, preferably with a little bit of a budget overrun that can be used to justify "We failed to ask for enough last time...give us a raise to cover our expected needs"
Actually planning and requesting one time funding for a project is a nightmare as there is no history for the budget committee to look at and see that the request is not unusual. Unusual in the eyes of the bureaucratic bean counter is almost identical to unnecessary.
It is basically saying that there are two or more views of a single data item/cluster.
For example: In WOW the status bar in the main window shows the player's gold. Now open a sell dialog where the gold status is repeated and you are seeing infringement of this patent.
Prior are exists. For example a spreadsheet that is able to split the view and then move the focus so that both views display an overlapping range of cells. This feature was available in spreadsheets and graphical databases in the 1980s. Windows 3.x is capable of this and many programs enabled this by generating dialog windows that repeated data displayed in the main window.
All versions of Windows from at least 3.x to Win8 infringe this patent, Mac OSX infringes this patent, Classic Mac (1984 onward) infringes this patent, vioAmigaOS (1985 to present) infringes this patent. Then going to programs... Any photo editor that displays a thumbnail or subsection of the image being edited in a separate window infringes this patent.
This patent troll will need to select victims carefully so that they don't accidentally go after someone with the money to keep them in court long enough for the judge to make a decision based on the evidence.
One of the value added features of a Journal is their reputation. If a particular Journal is known to reject bad submissions, then the material they do publish gains credibility by association with the Journal. If the Journal is known to favor bad submissions (Think National Enquirer for an example) then the material loses credibility by association with the Journal.
Regardless of what they publish each Journal pays Editors, copywriters, customer support/sales, peer reviewers (these may be low or no cost depending on availability and quality, but generally there will be a quality dependent cost) and then there is the per issue cost for assembly and publication of a print edition & monthly costs for the IT and internet presence. Many of these costs have a fixed component+marginal component so that a small distribution has a much higher per copy cost with each edition.
Individual researchers are free to publish their work independently, this has not changed in centuries. However it is usually established researchers with a solid reputation or well established research centers with a solid reputation publishing these works. Publications from unknowns will automatically be judged as poor or fraud simply because they did not get into a 'proper' Journal.
The Journals need to pay their bills so they price their submissions & subscriptions according to their estimated costs & income. Better quality with low distribution will cost more, larger distributions will generally lower the per piece cost & mediocre quality will lower it still more. There is a bottom where the price levels out due to periodicals priced below the point where they are taken seriously being ignored. (That seeming paradox is why small items sell better at $19.99 than they do at $9.99 ... the lower price means it isn't worth $20 :P ) For mass market periodicals the sweet spot minimum seems to be $4-$6 based on checking newsstands. Limited subscription periodicals do not have the economy of scale that allows those prices though.
Actually there is an "exclusive right to regional windowing". It is spelled out in the copyright owner's right to decide who can copy the work.
If the copyright owner says that the work is NOT to be distributed in Norway, then it cannot be legally sold in Norway. This control of a copyrighted work by the copyright owner is one of the few things common to all copyright laws.
Copies purchased in other countries and brought back to Norway may be legal, but bulk import for resale or general distribution is likely to be in violation of the laws if the copyright notices says "Not for sale in or import to a region that includes Norway" (Region 1 DVDs have a variation of this on almost every commercial DVD sold)
They need to be able to apply their knowledge of math in designing procedures.
They need to be able to explain their knowledge of math in training those who have not yet learned it.
Completely different skill sets. The teacher does not need to be able to use the knowledge in real world applications & the engineer/programmer does not need to explain the math concepts to the co-workers who are assumed to already have these skills.
Yes many people who cannot make practical use of their knowledge are qualified to teach others the basics. The reverse equally applies. Many people who can make use of their knowledge in real world applications can be completely unable to teach the concepts to others.
Running a business does not train one to be a teacher
A Computer Science degree and practical experience as a programmer does not train one to be a teacher.
However a good teacher can learn enough of both of these to teach others these skills up to the level the teacher has reached.
You will rarely find 3rd & 4th year college courses being taught to mainstream High School students. Einstein & Hawking would actually be overqualified in terms of knowledge. Hawking has demonstrated an ability to explain & teach. Not sure if Einstein ever demonstrated an ability to teach students.
The copyright holder has been granted control of the copyrighted material. This means in short that he has the right under the law to decide when the material can be distributed.
The churchlady assumes that her religious beliefs grant her the right to contol distribution of material copyrighted by a Third Party or else Freely distributable. The law gives the parties targeted by the churchlady permission to ignore her.
Yes she can file a lawsuit that will usually be thrown out of court, but occasionally she will win when the politicians or judge wish to enforce their personal moral code or gain political support. This is not legal (frivolous lawsuit) but is often effective when the target finds settlement is cheaper than defense or retaliation.